TST Virtual Forum Series, Trinity College & Emmanuel College: Rootedness and Community (July 16, 2020)



Co-hosts

Trinity College, Toronto, Faculty of Divinity
Emmanuel College of Victoria University in the University of Toronto
Toronto School of Theology TST Virtual Forum Series

Topic: Rootedness and Community: Challenges and Threats to our Collective Life

Date and Time:  Thursday, July 16, 2020, at 11:30 am (Toronto time) Zoom
                           
Platform Presenters

Nestor Medina (Emmanuel),
Esther Acolatse (Knox),
Darren Dias (St. Michael's
Michel Andraos (St. Paul, Ottawa), 
Bojan Zalec (Ljubljana, Slovenia), 
Jasna Koteska (Skopje, Macedonia)

For more information go here.

Conversation to follow for 60 minutes (90-minute forum). Zoom use is for two hours.

Co-hosts: 
Abrahim H. Khan (Trinity College)  
Tom Reynolds (Emmanuel College) 

 

Freud on the First World War, Part 2 (2020)



Freud on the First World War (Part 2) 
Jasna Koteska, Full Professor in Humanities, Faculty of Philology "Blaze Koneski", University Ss. Cyril and Methodius of Skopje, Macedonia

Full text here.

How to cite: Koteska, Jasna (2020). Freud on the First World War (Part 2). Researcher. European Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences. 1 (3), 45-60.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.32777/r.2020.3.1.3

For the first part of this article go here and here.



Abstract: The article “Freud on the First World War (Part 2)” analyzes Sigmund Freud’s controversial attitude towards the First World War. It exposes Freud’s attitude towards the medical procedure known as the faradization, and his double role regarding the Great War. His public persona was that of a pacifist scholar, while his personal correspondence reveals a nationalist who lived from one German victory to the next. This article demonstrates there are two Freuds regarding the Great War. The ‘first Freud’ was his public medical persona, who lamented the partisan attitudes of scientists carried away by their emotions. The ‘second Freud’ is Freud in communication with his closest friends and colleagues, where he admits his nationalism, and he identified himself with the Austro-German side and displays a war enthusiasm. In the only study dedicated to the Great World, the study titled “Thoughts for the Times on War and Death”, Freud offered a rich and valid insight into human nature, human’s capacity for destruction, and also human’s attitude towards its own immortality. Freud draw a clear distinction between war and death, and while in the first essay he dealt with discontent and disillusionment, in the second he says that human’s unconsciousness believes in its own immortality. The article also exposes Freud’s legendary meetings with artists during the Great War, and most notably with Lou Andreas-Salomé and with Rainer Maria Rilke.

Key words: Sigmund Freud, psychoanalysis. First World War, faradization, nationalism, two Freuds, Thoughts for the Times on War and Death, the question of War, the question of Death, Lou Andreas-Salomé, Rainer Maria Rilke.


I.

The Curious Role of Freud in the Case against Doctor Julius Wagner Jauregg 
(War Neurotic or Malingerer?)


During the war, soldiers were tortured not only by the enemies, but also by their military commanders. The general attitude of the Austrian military doctors was to proclaim that patients were lying about their war traumas. The ‘medical procedure’ often consisted in prescribing so-called faradization (the term originated from the name of Michael Faraday, the physicist who studied electromagnetism in therapy). The traumatized soldiers were exposed to the application of faradic currents to stimulate muscles and nerves. The electrical shocks were often as painful as the actual traumas, and by critics they were regarded as concealed military torture! But, despite being painful, were the electric currents actually useful in healing neurotic symptoms? According to Freud, they were not.

 

Courage is a Virtue between being a Coward and a Crazy Temper (Interview, January 16, 2020)




Interview, January 16, 2020.
Nova Makedonija Newspaper,
Read it online in Macedonian here
Title: "Courage is a virtue between being a coward and being a crazy temper"
Interviewer: Biljana Stojanovska, writer and journalist, check here

Македонската верзија е подолу.






Social reputation is... Social reputation is an illusion, nobody has it. A belief in one’s own reputation is like a dentist who if s/he fixes his/her own teeth, has a fool for a patient.
People who do not know how to make jokes at their own expense ... are often people who in the solitude of their rooms create hilarious jokes about the human existence. I don't have a high opinion of the everyday humor. Humor hides the excess sadistic enjoyment embedded in the order. Those who joke on their own account are the same as those who make jokes of others, plus with the appearance of modesty. The humor of the masses is in order for a person to better align his/her place in the system, to approve it more, to better fit in it, to legitimize the cruelty through sarcasm. Chaplin, for example, is a terrifying humor, one of the first to exploit the mass forms of today's machined laughter. Free laughter only occurs when one dismentles the system. Kafka is an authentic humorist. Beckett is a genius comedian. Buddha is happy, he is a bearer of a freed laughter.
I run away from ... I'm trying to run away from vices. Also from the “too much” and “too little”, in the sense that generosity is the golden mean between being stingy and being wasteful. Courage is a virtue between being a coward and being a crazy temper. Self-confidence is a golden mean between vanity and asceticism. But above all I am trying to run away from the effects of power. They are the worst form of grief.

 

16. International Meeting of Publishers and Writers on Søren Kierkegaard, Slovenia&Croatia, December 2019

Opening, 16 International Meeting
26.11.2019, Ljubljana


16. International Meeting of Publishers and Writers, "Revija v reviji", 2019 November 26 - December 1, 2019 Ljubljana (Slovenia) and Zagreb (Croatia)

Full program of the events in Slovenia and Croatia here

Some pictures from the literary events and scientific symposium:


  1. Ljubljana book fair, Slovenia (November 26- December 1, 2019) 
  2. Zagreb International Symposium Modern Film and Theory (November 27-29, 2019), Croatia.











I won Bronze Medal at the Philosophical Quiz at the Ljubljana book fair November 30, 2019 :)

Philosophical Quiz November 2019
with Zarko Paic, Primoz Repar 
My Bronze in Philosophy :)


 

Freud on the First World War, Part 1 (2019)



Communication Trench, Battle of Somme, 1916
Photo: Royal Engineers, No 1 Printing Company 

Freud on the First World War (Part 1)
Jasna Koteska, Full Professor in Humanities, Faculty of Philology "Blaze Koneski", Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, Macedonia.

The full text here.





How to cite: Koteska, Jasna (2019). "Freud on the First World War (Part 1)". Researcher. European Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences. 4 (2), 53-68.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.32777/r.2019.2.4.4

  
FREUD ON THE FIRST WORLD WAR
(Part 1)

Jasna Koteska
 Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje



I.
The Birth of Psychoanalysis as an Austro-Hungarian Legacy


Despite its many shortcomings, from the regressive political system of governance to the refusal to recognize the basic human freedoms and political participation, the Austro-Hungarian Empire (1867–1918) left several important international legacies behind: the nineteenth century idea of cosmopolitanism, the mixture of ethnicities and cultures, innovations in the arts and sciences, the promotion of new ideas, the entrepreneurial spirit, the encouragement of equality for Jews at a time of rising anti-Semitism across Europe, etc. And among them, one important legacy of the Austro-Hungarian Empire is the birth of psychoanalysis.

Born between 1895 and 1900, psychoanalysis provided a radical insight into human nature, explaining that humans are torn between two paradoxical calls: a) The will for total (self-) annihilation, and for the brutal destruction of everything which exists (the Thanatos principle); b) At the same time, this destructive impulse is never fully realizable, because it constantly gets blocked by the human urge to stick to what psychoanalysis calls ‘a partial, lost object’, which could translate to desire for objects (the Eros principle). The search for the ‘lost object’ is not performed out of a belief that there exists such a ‘lost object’, nor that it will satisfy the actual needs of people. Instead, the ‘lost object’ serves as a reminder that there exists a ‘primordial lack’ in humans. Humans are not capable of bypassing the radical antagonism between the finite and the infinite. Due to the radical chasm, people endlessly repeat their obsession with their ‘lost objects’, creating what psychoanalysis recognized as the ‘surplus excess of life’, and humans are beings explained by their excessive nature. Psychoanalysis explains that humans are torn between two contradictory principles: the pleasure principle and the reality principle, between Eros and Thanatos. For Freud, Thanatos is the primary drive, and it is more fundamental than the Eros.

Freud’s explanation of Thanatos as the more fundamental drive strangely overlapped with the devastating outcomes of the First World War. The last European experience of war dated back to 1870 and most parties expected the Great War of 1914 to be a brief conflict, but the war lasted for four years, and it took the lives of 20 million and wounded many more. It was the first war fought with the industrial means of modern warfare, and it set new standards for destructiveness and for the ‘passionate surplus of life’. Although Freud’s discipline was originally intended to treat individuals, it soon became useful in explaining the attitudes of collective entities, and offered multiple insights into human capacities for destruction, aggression and brutality. Freud wrote that contrary to common knowledge, humans are not more reflexive than animals. What ‘humanizes’ people is never just what moral norms preach. People appear more ‘human’ than animals mainly because they are inherently caught up into the closed loop of repetition of the same gestures and rituals, much of them connected to destruction or self-destruction. Two years after the end of World War I, in his study Beyond the Pleasure Principle (1920) Freud writes:

If we are to take it as truth that knows no exception that everything living dies for internal reasons – becomes inorganic once again – then we shall be compelled to say that ‘the aim of all life is death’ and, looking backwards, that ‘inanimate things existed before living ones.


 

Michal Viewegh, Bringing Up Girls in Bohemia, BookStar (October, 2019)

Bringing Up Girls in Bohemia
Skopje Promotion 7 October 2019

Јасна  Котеска
„Пост-транзицијата во романот 'Воспитувањето девојки во Чешка'“,
Зборник на трудови од VII македонско-чешка научна конференција, Филолошки факултет Блаже Конески, Скопје 2018, 171-185.










The video from the promotion is here



Пост-транзицијата во романот „Воспитувањето девојки во Чешка“ 
(Извадок)


[...] 
Мислејќи на Беата, нараторот вели: „Јас не го кревам ѓубрето од земја само затоа што е валкано“. Што секако не е вистина. Крал не е загрижен заради забавите на неговата ќерка и го убедува брачниот херој да го сфати курсот по креативно пишување како пофлексибилна задача: „Горе-долу може да правиш што сакаш“, му вели „единствена цел е да ја развеселиш малку, да престане да биде така несреќна, тоа е сè.“ Оваа реплика на „кралот“ има функција на пасош за љубовен продолжеток, бидејќи по индиректното одобрување, безимениот наратор влетува во љубовна врска со Беата.
Viewegh seemed really afraid of me, 2019
Тука всушност започнува  не само приказната за прељубата, туку и за природата на бракот.  Беата сака да знае: „Колку долго сум оженет? Толку долго? Дали имаме заеднички пријатели? Што прави жена ми додека пишувам? Како сме се запознале? Што е најтешката работа во бракот? Што е причина за развод?“ „Бракот“ - реков.
Сопругата ја нема во нарацијата, таа е статус, не се знае нејзиното име, професијата, приватните дилеми, што прави со својот ден. Како што пишува Померој за т.н. брачна секлузија во старогрчкото општество, кога реферира на отфрлањето на Ксантипа од смртната постела на Сократ и неговата желба да умре со своите машки компањони - така и жената на нараторот кај Вивег е алиенирана од бракот.

 

Бранот: човечката психологија и авторитарноста (2019)

Die Welle (2008) Dennis Gansel
Theatrical Release Poster



Јасна Котеска „Бранот: човечката психологија и авторитарноста“, Филозофска трибина, 42, бр. 26, стр. 57-76, есен 2019.
УДК: 159.923: 17.033.1
791.31:|373.5.091.33-027.22(73):329.18(430)


Die Welle (2008)- movie
The Third Wave Experiment (1967)












БРАНОТ:
ЧОВЕЧКАТА ПСИХОЛОГИЈА И АВТОРИТАРНОСТА
Јасна Котеска

ABSTRACT

The article analyzes the implications of the social experiment known as the The Third Wave from 1967, as well as its film adaptation in the German movie “The Wave” (2008) by Dennis Gansel. The article addresses several issues related to the experiment, such as: the questions of human responsibility, how the authoritarian ideology is being implemented, what is the relationship between a human being and his/her social role, what is the difference between authoritarianism and fashism, ethics vs free will, and finally how to conceptualize the thinking related to human actions.

KEY WORDS

The Wave, social experiments, authoritarianism, social role, human psyche, ethics vs free will, the concept of thinking

Четири типа одговорност на Јасперс


Текстот кој следи се занимава со неколку прашања од етичка природа: како се создава авторитарната идеологија, дали луѓето се податливи за авторитаризам и следат наредби дури и кога се спротивни на нивните убедувања, како е возможно радикализирање на милиони луѓе кои чинат зло? Каква е врската помеѓу моралот и слободната волја? И конечно, дали постои слободна волја?
Oвие прашања се адресирани во филмската адаптација на социјалниот експеримент екранизиран во германскиот филм Бранот (The Wave, 2008) на режисерот Денис Гансел (Dennis Gansel). Повод за текстот е социјалниот експеримент кој се случува помеѓу 6 и 10 во април 1967 во училиште во американскиот град Пало Алто, кој во стручната литература од областа на социјалната психологија денес се води под името Експериментот на Третиот бран. Заедно со Милграм експериментот од 1963 и Затворски експеримент на Стенфорд од 1971, овие три експерименти во 20 век донесоа неочекувани увиди во човечката наклонетост кон авторитарноста и морално (не)расудување. Но, најнапред неколку контекстуални рамки за разбирање на проблематиката на Третиот бран.
The Third Wave Experiment 1967
by Unknown
Licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0.
Кога во 1996 година се појави книгата на Даниел Голдхаген „Доброволните џелати на Хитлер“ таа предизвика многу контроверзи затоа што во неа се тврдеше дека: бројот на убиените Евреи им бил познат на повеќето Германци; и дека одбивањето да се учествува во геноцидот над Евреите не бил казнуван со смрт, ниту со каква било неправда. Отворањето на Штази-архивите во Германија го потврди истото - дека оние што одбиле да соработуваат со тајните служби на комунизмот не претрпеле никаква лична штета. Моралните избори биле возможни, но луѓето се наклонети да ги поддржуваат професионалните и етичките кодови на апстрактната државна машинерија. Овие увиди фрлија непријатно светло врз параметрите под кои се случуваат масовните злосторства. Масовните злосторства се возможни само со премолчена соработка на сите со сите, а се обезбедени преку идеолошкиот штит на авторитарните идеологии.
Студиите за затворската тортура го потврдуваат истото. Тортурата во најопшта смисла не функционира, од оној што го измачуваш не можеш да добиеш релевантен податок, а тортурата се одржува како мит со причина. Во книгата „Тортура и демократија“ (2007) Дариус Реали вели: „(Т)ортурата не е корисна за собирање информации. Луѓето мислат дека тортурата била ефикасна за Гестапо, на пример. Не била. Тоа што го правело Гестапо така застрашувачки ефикасно била неговата зависност од соработката на народот. Шпионите се главната причина за долгогодишното уништување на отпорот во Европа, и сите го знаеле тоа, но позгодно било да се каже дека Гестапо го извлекол тоа од нас – тепајќи не’.“[1]

 

The Jewel on a Frozen Lake: Kierkegaard on the Meaning of Action (May 2019) CERI-SK Conference, Slovenia and Croatia


Image result for kierkegaard


Jasna Koteska: The Jewel on a Frozen Lake, Kierkegaard on the Meaning of Action

Ljubljana, 16 May 2019, 13:00-13:30
Cankarjev Dom, Ljubljana, Slovenia







The Jewel on a Frozen Lake: Kierkegaard on the Meaning of Action

Jasna Koteska



1.
The Parable

On 30 March 1846 Kierkegaard published a book Two Ages, A Literary Review, his first book under second authorship (1846-1855), a period marked by rich literary production. The question about the meaning of action was not his prime interest during these years, but it was closely related to his main concern regarding the religious salvation. Two Ages tried to address the present situation, the responsibility regarding the “divine message”, the question of suffering, the pseudo-Christianity and above all what does the concept of selfhood mean. The question of selfhood was of the highest importance to Kierkegaard, and it was further developed in his book Sickness unto Death (1849), in which, he offered a highly abstract definition of selfhood, writing that self is “a relation that relates itself to itself or is the relations’ relation relating itself to itself in the relation”. Although abstract, for Kierkegaard the definition meant few basic things: a self is a task, a self is not given, a self includes responsibility, and the only medicine against despair of the selfhood is faith. The Two Ages was written as a prelude, as the explanation why the present age obstructs the self from achieving these goals.

The Jewel on Thin Ice parable reads as follows:

If the jewel which everyone desires to possess lay far out on a frozen lake where the ice was very thin, watched over by the danger of death, while, closer in, the ice was perfectly safe, then in a passionate age the crowds would applaud the courage of the man who ventured out, they would tremble for him and with him in the danger of his decisive action, they would grieve over him if he were drowned, they would make a god of him if he secured the prize. But in an age without passion, in a reflective age, it would be otherwise. People would think each other cleaver in agreeing that it was unreasonable and not even worthwhile to venture so far out. And in this way they would transform daring and enthusiasm into a feat of skill, so as to do something, for after all ‘something must be done’. The crowds would go out to watch from a safe place, and with the eyes of connoisseurs appraise the accomplished skater who skate almost to the very edge (i.e. as far as the thin ice was still safe and the danger had not yet begun) and then turn back. The most accomplished skater would manage to go out to the furthermost point and then perform a still more dangerous-looking run, so as to make the spectators hold their breath and say: ‘Ye Gods! How mad; he is risking his life.’[1]

The main idea with this parable for Kierkegaard was to explain the difference between an engaged, passionate age, and the objective spectatorship of modernity. His explanation was simple, if the age is revolutionary, the community celebrates the courage of a person who sacrifices his life for the common goal. And vice versa, if the age is reflective, people consider the hero’s action as unreasonable and meaningless, they ridicule his courage and strength, and they reduce the hero’s sacrifice to a simple display of skills. The passion mobilizes the spirit; enflaming the passion will bring hopes in the possibility of a new form of spiritualized political collective. But for Kierkegaard, the passion is inevitably obstructed by the features of modernity.


 

The Jewel on a Frozen Lake (2019) Symposium & School of Philosophy, Slovenia & Croatia


7th International Philosophical Symposium, Cankarjev dom & municipality of Cernomelj, Slovenia.

Søren Kierkegaard, 13- 17 May, 2019. 


The Symposium will be attended by 40 Kierkegaard scholars from 20 countries, including Norway, Denmark, Canada, Germany, China, India, Mexico, Iceland, Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia and Macedonia.


School of Philosophy at Island Unije, Croatia.
Kierkegaard in Dialogue, 19-24 May, 2019.

Link to the program at the CERI-SK website.

The Jewel on a Frozen Lake: Kierkegaard on the Meaning of Action
 Jasna Koteska

ABSTRACT


The paper analyses the paradox in Søren Kierkegaard’s interpretation of the meaning of action in his famous 1846 tract “Two Ages: A Literary Review”. As is well-known, to describe the two ages Kierkegaard used a parable of a precious jewel on a frozen lake covered with thin ice. If the age is revolutionary, Kierkegaard writes, the whole community celebrates the courage of a person who will sacrifice his life for the common goal. And vice versa, if the age is reflective, people consider the hero’s action as unreasonable and meaningless, they ridicule his courage and strength, and reduce the hero’s sacrifice to a simple display of skills. The paradox occurs when Kierkegaard describes the revolutionary vigor. Otherwise known for his masterful literary style, Kierkegaard enigmatically avoided the playful, urgent and swift descriptions, which would correspond to the momentum needed for revolutionary action and instead chose repetitive and dull sentences. E.g.: “The age of revolution is essentially passionate and therefore essentially has culture”; “The tension and resilience of the inner being are the measure of essential culture”; “The age of revolution is essentially passionate” and so on. 

The obvious question is why Kierkegaard, who was aware that repetition brings reduction of jouissance, chose to interpret the revolutionary age through repetition, and with the same melancholy and mourning with which he described the present age? Was it because he considered every revolution as essentially a repetitive event? Or, because he believed that each self-sacrifice (the hero on thin ice) is always already a senseless gesture, which cannot get an approval of the community? Or, more radically, what if there is no age which can be called a revolutionary age? What if there is nothing exclusive in history, and each epoch is just a set of practical decisions about what kind of life one wants to commit oneself to? The paper argues that Kierkegaard developed a notion that both pleasure of the aesthetical and the ethical existence - “the life of a poet” and “the life of a judge” are incomplete, the only resolution of human’s destiny must come about in the form of a religious choice. Due to the radical antagonism of human situation, humans are incapable of bypassing the abyss between the finite and the infinite, therefore the action is always conducted without a full meaning, without a rational knowledge of the consequences of that action and with a leap of faith; therefore the true action can come only in the form of a conduct of the single individual directed towards the highest good as it is understood in Kierkegaard.

 

DOCUMENTARY Still the Spy of God, Søren Kierkegaard in the 21st Century (2019)


Kierkegaard in the 21 Century.
Film stills by Thomas J. Roth

Kierkegaard in the 21 Century.
Film stills by Thomas J. Roth

DOCUMENTARY (2019) 

Still the Spy of God: Søren Kierkegaard in the 21st Century / New Perspectives

Director: Thomas Josef Roth, Germany.
Documentary Film Production: Dok Haus Berlin.
Thomas Josef Roth is author of "The Voice of Nothingness: Zen Buddhism and the Kyoto School Philosophy" link, "Nietzsche in Sils Maria" link.

Watch the trailer for the Kierkegaard documentary here.

Kierkegaard in the 21 Century: New Perspectives
Film stills by Thomas J. Roth







 

The Ethnologist as Writer: The Writer as Ethnologist (2019)



The Ethnologist as Writer
March 21, 2019

The Writer as Ethnologist
March 21, 2019

The Ethnologist as a Writer: The Writer as Ethnologist
Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics
Faculty of Philology "Blaze Koneski"
University Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Skopje, Macedonia

The interdisciplinary project, with students from the Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology (IEA) at the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics and from the departments of literature and linguistics at the Faculty of Philology, explores the links between literature and ethnography, examines the boundaries between facts and fiction, and the documentary value of ethnological field materials versus the literary imagination. 

Project leaders: 
Prof. Ilina Jakimovska, IEA, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics. 
Prof. Jasna Koteska, Department of Macedonian and South Slavic Literatures, Faculty of Philology.

Duration: February - June 2019.




 

Review (2018) "Kierkegaard on Consumerism" by Igor Tavilla (in Italian)


Recensione A: Jasna Koteska, Kierkegaard On Consumerism, Kierkegaard Circle/KUD Apokalipsa, Toronto-Ljubljana 2016, Pp. 132.
Author: Igor Tavilla
Published in: Discipline Filosofiche, Rivista semestrale, Universita di Bologna, Italia, 2018.
Link to the review.

Jasna Koteska (Skopje 1970) è scrittrice e filosofa macedone, docente di letteratura, teoria psicoanalitica e gender studies presso l’Università dei Santi Cirillo e Metodio di Skopje, nonché membro del CERI-SK (Central Europe Research Institute Søren Kierkegaard) di Lubiana. Kierkegaard on Consumerism, uscito nel 2016 per le edizioni KUD Apokalipsa, in collaborazione con il Kierkegaard Circle di Toronto, consta di tre saggi, già pubblicati in altre sedi, concernenti il tema del consumismo nell’opera del filosofo danese Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855).
“Sebbene Kierkegaard non si fosse occupato del capitalismo, egli fu uno dei più autorevoli esponenti dell’esistenzialismo, e il suo contributo alle scienze economiche, oltre che allo studio della psiche umana e della religione, consistette nell’aver sottolineato l’importanza delle scelte e delle decisioni individuali” (p. 17). Data questa premessa, l’autrice intende affermare che Kierkegaard avrebbe messo a tema della propria riflessione il cosiddetto “rischio d’investimento”, negli anni in cui la moderna economia occidentale prendeva forma, constatando, con profetica lungimiranza, come gli esseri umani si trovino quasi sempre a dover compiere delle scelte sulla scorta di informazioni parziali e di una conoscenza del reale che non è mai completa.

 

Exit, foreword (2018)



Published in:
Jasna Koteska, “Boro Rudić, Exit”, Boro Rudić, Exit (photography monograph), Propoint, Skopje, 2018, p. 2-5.

ISBN 978-608-66095-0-4








Exit

Jasna Koteska


[...] Rudic’s territory is linked to vectors of departure, which is why this book is called Exit. Still, this does not mean leaving the territory. Leaving it just means entry into a new territory. This is the reason why his photographs are full of signs, emissions of signals, railway tracks, paths, steps, streets, entrances, fences, all being there as signals intended for seekers. The objective of these signals is to be aux aguets, lookouts for the observant eye, the camera never looks in panic in the hands of Rudic. He catches the folds of the landscape, the line of the rock in order to discover the new syntax of the space. The photographs from Exit are not there as portraits of culture, but aim to capture a specific spectral dimension of reality, akin to the yellow sky or field in Van Gogh or the grass in Munch. This does not mean that Rudic is stepping over into another form of art, that of painting. He remains within the realm of photography, but at the same time he is always with one foot in the world of painting.

 

The Body as a Philological Map (2018) in Macedonian



Published in:
Jasna Koteska, “The Body as a Philological Map: The Clinical Cases of Sigmund Freud as a Literary Genre”, in: Critical Methods and Interpretations, edited by Katica Kjulafkova, Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Vol. 1, Skopje, 2018, pp. 67-95.

ISBN: 978-608-203-230-6













The Body as a Philological Map: 
The Clinical Cases of Sigmund Freud as a Literary Genre

Jasna Koteska


The study offers a reading of five clinical cases from the Ur-book of psychoanalysis Studies on Hysteria by Sigmund Freud and Josef Breuer from 1895. By applying semantic analysis in the clinical cases of Anna O., Emmy von N., Cäcilie M., and Elisabeth von R., Sigmund Freud for the first time in humanities tried to prove the existence of the so-called linguistic unconscious. He unveiled that the hysteria could be interpreted with philological means. This operation altered and transformed the clinical studies (which, up until his work, were recognized as mere medical documents) into complex literary hybrids of psychological and belletristic studies. 

In the clinical cases, the patient is transformed into a main character; the studies contain most of the elements of the literary texts: composition, fabula (the chronological order of events), sujet (the order events are told in), the plot, the outcome, the motivation, the secret, the narrative dynamic, the dialogical form, the literalization of events, the change of focalisation (the perspectives through which a narrative is presented). By applying the hermeneutical approaches, Freud claimed that the symptoms are specific semantic hieroglyphics, that the subject’s unconscious “speaks”, and that the hysteric is using his or her body to express a certain contradictory idea. By interpreting the symptoms as an “older language of humanity”, Freud opened the possibility of using the psychoanalysis as a hermeneutical method in the literary science.


Freud's Session.
Photo by Marko Markoski (2013)