Kierkegaard on Consumerism (2016)

Author: Jasna Koteska
Title: Kierkegaard on Consumerism (The Aesthetic, the Ethical, and the Religious Reading)
Publishers: Kierkegaard Circle, Trinity College, University of Toronto
Toronto, Canada MSS THB
Central European Research Institute Soeren Kierkegaard, Ljubljana
KUD Apokalipsa

Date of Publication: September 2016
Language: English.

Copyright © Kierkegaard Circle, Central European Research Institute Soeren Kierkegaard Ljubljana, KUD Apokalipsa 2016
© Jasna Koteska
6 Hoskin Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, CANADA
Central European Research Institute Soeren Kierkegaard Ljubljana
Ul. Lili Novy 25, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia

Number of pages: 130
20 x 12,5 cm, 142 g

ISBN: 978-1-988129-02-0

Where to buy it?
Go to this link

If you are in Canada, you can borrow the book at the Library of Trinity College, University of Toronto. Go to this linkThe book is indexed as B4378. E8 2016

Kierkegaard on Consumerism (The Aesthetic, the Ethical, and the Religious Reading) by the Macedonian author, Jasna Koteska, consists of three essays about consumerism in the works of the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard (1813–1855), most notably in his book Repetition (1843). Each of the essays deals with the three stages of life according to Kierkegaard: the aesthetic, the ethical and the religious. There are few books about Kierkegaard and economics, and even fewer on Kierkegaard’s views about consumerism. This book is intended to fulfill that gap. Kierkegaard witnessed the beginnings of modernity and although he did not write about the capitalist issues, his greatest contribution to economics,besides his contributions to human psyche and religion, was his elaboration on the importance of individual choices and decisions, as he strongly disagreed with the modern view that humans crave only agitation and desiring.

Kierkegaard on Consumerism

Acknowledgements 7
Introduction 9

First Part: The Aesthetic 13
Second Part: The Ethical 29
Third Part: The Religious 83

Abstract 115
About the Author 117
Literature 120
Index 127


Contribution in "Critical Art in Contemporary Macedonia" (2016)

Book: Critical Art in Contemporary Macedonia
Editor: Jon Blackwood
Publisher: Mala Galerija, Skopje with the help of  the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland
Year: 2016
Contributor: Jasna Koteska, pp. 307-317.
ISBN 10: 6086598703
ISBN 13: 978-6086598709

See more about the book here
You can buy the book on Amazon here



JON BLACKWOOD: What Are Your Earliest Memories of Art?

JASNA KOTESKA: I have a twofold answer. 

On the one hand, I don’t believe there exists such a thing as earliest memories for each individual. Even if one starts to honestly enumerate the earliest lyrics one remembers, or colors, or scents, it would still be a lie. Humanity has long memory, but humans don’t. Freud has an article On Screen Memories and in it he says that earliest memories are always false.

When I positively claim I remember a given childhood scene, it is either a scene told and retold so many times by my parents, that I later adopted it as “my own” memory, or it is an event which took place in my adolescence, but I later “projected” it onto my earliest childhood, as on a screen, Freud says. We should not disregard his insights as psychoanalytical cynicism. The neurosciences of today offer multiple evidences that Freud was downright correct. Every time I remember a given episode from the past, neurosciences say, I am already erasing the previously existing memory, and forming a new one instead. The older the memory, the more twisted and reworked it appears to be. What constitutes my past are the mosaic pieces, tesserae, with which I “decorate” my personal history in order to be able to say that I, too, am “complete”, just like the rest of us. Which is a nice assemblage, but it has a little value regarding the truth of one's being. 

When people say “You can take away everything from me, but you cannot take away my childhood”, it is not without a certain irony that one of the things which people never truly posses, might be precisely their own childhoods.

On the other hand, your question is crucial for any discussion about art. Humanity does have earliest memories of art, only, they are not individual. One of my favorite documentaries, Cave of Forgotten Dreams (2010) by Werner Herzog, tells about the oldest human painted images yet discovered in the Chauvet cave, crafted some 32,000 years ago, twice as old as the Lascaux caves. The birth of art, I believe, is neatly connected to constituting a territory and then transcending it. Each territory is formed through lines, colors, and sounds -- precisely the three basic determinants of art in its pure state. However, the striking part of the film, for me, is that the painter left palm prints on the paintings, but on each prints the opposable thumb is missing. The most common artist of the Paleolithic is the one who has one or several fingers disfigured. One hypothesis says that young hunters were undergoing certain initiations, in which they were having their fingers cut off. But a second hypothesis says that if digits are missing, it is because it is a mythogram, it is meaningful; the artist is trying to tell us something; the artist wants to leave a testimony: everybody has five fingers, but I, the artist, must tell you that no perfect model exists; all that is complete is a lie. The only perfect model of a human is a human who is disfigured, incomplete, without the possibility to point to her completed identity, deprived of the possibility to tell her personal history, etc., just like Freud tells us. 

In the Chauvet cave the oldest artistic signature in the world is stored; that signature teaches us that art becomes art only when it deliberately leaves the territory, leaves the finger cut off, leaves the cave. Art is about leaving a thought, a memory, a habit, a value, a friend, a lover, an object, a finger, a territory. Leaving is not a gesture of selfishness; on the contrary, it is a selfless act. Appropriation is selfish, leaving is on the side of transition rather than death, it is about being out of stasis, and the artistry of leaving is something we learn from the Earth. People don’t know how to die because we rarely learn how to leave. Animals, on the other hand, seek a corner to die in, seeking a territory for death; they know when to leave places still hospitable, sites still livable.

Art is impossible without leaving. Take a look at Kafka, or Kierkegaard and their broken engagements. Or the colors in Van Gogh or Gauguin, the two greatest colorists: in their works, they employ color with greatest hesitation, Deleuze says, it took them years and years before being able to take on color, to consider themselves as worthy of color. Art is about leaving the known territory and going into the unknown, it goes with certain insanity; it is also a slow process of making a portrait of something one reaches for the first time. In the 19 century Van Gogh saw the starry nights as they were photographed only at the beginning of the 1930s by the first star trail photographers. Van Gogh was the first to leave the earthly gaze; with no technology and with a naked eye, to see for the first time the actual motions of starts in the night sky due to the rotation of the Earth. Recently I was amazed to learn to which extent the star trails of one of the greatest star trail photographers of today, Lincoln Harrison, resemble the Van Gogh’s Starry Nights paintings and drawings. Great art precedes science, it paves a path towards the deeper knowledge, and it is always by means of leaving. To your actual question, my earliest conscious memories of art would be, than, when I first learnt that once I would have to leave; when in something I recognized the biological reminder that there is an embedded necessity to depart.



Jasna Koteska Bibliography 2011-2016

August 2015
(c) Goran Petrov

Jasna Koteska Bibliography 2011-2016
Јасна Котеска библиографија 2011-2016

For her selected 2005-2009 bibliography see here, and for 2007-2011 here.

BOOKS (2011-2016)

1. 2016. Koteska, Jasna. Kierkegaard on Consumerism (The Aesthetic, the Ethical, and the Religious Reading), Publisher: Kierkegaard Circle, University of Toronto and Central European Research Institute Soren Kierkegaard, Toronto-Ljubljana, September 2016. Language: English. ISBN 978-1-988129-02-0
2. 2015. Representation of Gender Minority Groups in Media: Serbia, Montenegro and Macedonia. Editors: Tatjana Rosic-Ilic, Jasna Koteska and Janko Ljumovic, Biblioteka Collectanea, Publisher: Center for Media and Communications, Faculty of Media and Communications, Belgrade, December 2015, pp. 333. Language: English. ISBN: 978-86-87107-54-0
3. 2014. Koteska, Jasna. Communist Intimacy. New Academia Publishing: Washington DC, 10 March 2014, 323 pp. Language: English. ISBN 978-0-989916976 
4. 2013. Котеска, Јасна. Фројдовска читанка. Рана психоанализа 1893-1899. Култура, Скопје, 1 ноември 2013, pp. 862 Language: Macedonian ISBN: 978-9989-32-713-1 
5. 2012. Котеска, Ясна. Санитарна енигма, превод Станимир Панайотов, КХ-критика и хуманизам, София, 2012, 320 pp. Language: Bulgarian. ISBN: 978-954-587-160-3 

Communist Intimacy (2014) made it on to the European Society of Authors' Finnegans's List of 30 books for 2015.

Jasna Koteska
photo by Goran Petrov (c)
Malaysia, January 2017

ARTICLES (2011-2016)

1. "Gestovi i tela (Status gesta kod Kafke, Kjerkegora i Kundere", Sarajevske sveske, urednik Tatjana Rosic-Ilic, Mediacentar Sarajevo, No. 49-50, May 2016, pp. 79-92.
2. Critical Art in Contemporary Macedonia, edited by Jon Blackwood, Grays School of Art, Scotland; Carnegie Trust for the Universities in Scotland, and Mala Galerija, Skopje, 2016, pp. 307-317.
3. “Freud On the First World War”, book First World War, edited by Snezhana Dimitrova, Department of History, South West University “Neofil Rilski”, Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria, in print, first half of 2017.
4. „Телото како филолошка мапа (клиничките студии на Фројд како книжевен жанр)“ во: Интерпретативни стратегии, МАНУ, уред. акад. Катица Ќулафкова и проф. Наташа Аврамовска, Скопје, - во печат, во 2017.
5. „Историја и контекст на постмодерната во македонската литература“, во Зборник од XLVIII летна школа на Меѓународниот семинар за македонски јазик, литература и култура, Охрид, во печат, 2017.
6. „Книжевноста како наставен предмет (методички аспекти)“, Литературен збор, Скопје, бр. 1-3, 2016, 145-157.
7. „Концепот на малото кај Кафка - психоаналитички читања“, во Интерпретативни стратегии, Научно-истражувачки проект Примена на херменевтичките методи во толкувањето на книжевните дела, уред. акад. Катица Ќулафкова и проф. Наташа Аврамовска, во печат, крај на 2016. 
8. „Статусот на гестот кај Кафка, Кундера и кај Киркегард“, Литературен збор, Скопје, бр. 4-6, 2016, 93-107.
9. „Фројд и семантиката на телото“, во Наше писмо, Скопје, бр. 81, 2016, стр. 63-70.

1. „O unheimlich efektu zajednice (dramatika Žanine Mircevske), in: Žene, drame i izvedba, Između post-socijalizma i post-feminizma (uredila Lada Čale Felman), edicija Teorija savremene umetnosti, Beograd: Orion Art, 2015, 167-192.
2. „The Ideology of Consumerism in Kierkegaard's Repetition" in: Soren Kierkegaard, How to Avoid the Totalitarianism of Consumerism, ed. Dr. Primoz Repar, KUD Apokolipsa and Central European Research Institute Soren Kierkegaard, Ljubljana, 2015, 49-87.
3. „Оценувањето и методиката на наставата по книжевност“, во: Литературен збор, Скопје,  год. LXXII, бр. 1-3, 2015, 191-209. 
4. "Pride Week, Silence and Violence" in Representation of Gender Minority Groups in Media: Serbia, Montenegro and Macedonia, edited by Tatjana Rosic-Ilic, Jasna Koteska and Janko Ljumovic, FMK, Faculty of Media and Communication, Belgrade, 2015, 45-63. (in English)
5. "Nagovor", in: Kierkegaard, Totalitarizem potrosnistva, ed. Dr. Primoz Repar, KUD Apokolipsa and Central European Research Institute Soren Kierkegaard, Ljubljana, 2015, 31-40.
6. „Траумата некогаш и сега: од Шарко до Холивуд“, во Спектар, меѓународно списание за литературна наука, уредник Наташа Аврамовска, Скопје, 2015, бр. 65, XXIII, 149-167.
7. "Ideologija izbire in potrosnistva v Kierkegaardovi Ponovitvi",in: Kierkegaard, Totalitarizem potrosnistva, ed. Dr. Primoz Repar, KUD Apokolipsa and Central European Research Institute Soren Kierkegaard, Ljubljana, 2015, 101- 64-101.
8. „Општествен инженеринг“, во: Ана Јовковска Пулсот и времето“, Силсонс, Скопје 2015, 187-201.
9. „За екранските сеќавања на Фројд“, во Наше писмо, Скопје, бр. 79-80, год. XXI, 14-19.
10. "From Silence to Violence", во: Book of Abstracts, Rеpresentation of Gender Minority Groups in Media: Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Publisher: FMK, Faculty of Media and Communication, Belgrade, 2015, p. 3.


Gestures and Bodies (The Status of Gestures in Kafka, Kierkegaard and Kundera) - in Bosnian (2016)

Jasna Koteska
"Gestures and Bodies
(The Status of Gestures in Kafka, Kierkegaard and Kundera)", Sarajevske sveske, Mediacentar Sarajevo, No. 49-50, 20 maj 2016, pp. 79-92.
Language: Serbian/Croatian/Bosnian
ISSN: 1512-8539

Link to the text online.
You can download the Journal here.

(Status gesta kod Kafke, Kjerkegora i Kundere)
Jasna Koteska

Uvod: Da li gest pripada telu?

Roman Besmrtnost (1990), Milana Kundere, otvara se opisom gesta koji pravi glavna junakinja Agnes pri izlasku iz bazena. Narator na početku romana beleži dirljivu komičnost Agnese dok bezuspešno pokušava da natera ostarelo telo da se povinuje naredbama trenera za plivanje. Ali, odmah nakon izlaska iz bazena, okrećući se prema treneru, Agnes pravi gest odmahivanja rukom, koji služi kao inspiracija s kojim se otvara roman o besmrtnosti:

„Prošla je pored trenera i na tri-četiri koraka od njega okrenula je glavu prema njemu, osmehnula se i mahnula mu. Steglo mi se srce! Osmeh i gest pripadali su 20-godišnjoj devojci. Ruka joj se podigla sa začuđujućom lakoćom. To je bilo kao da baca u vazduh šarenu loptu da bi se igrala sa voljenim. Osmeh i gest imali su privlačnost i eleganciju, iako lice i telo nisu više posedovali nikakav šarm.To je bila privlačnost gesta koji je tonuo u neprivlačnost tela.“

Kunderin opis otvara kompleks filozofskih pitanja o odnosu gesta i tela. Ako jedno neprivlačno telo proizvodi privlačan gest, da li to znači da gest postoji nezavisno od tela? Da li gest pripada sferi univerzalnog, a telo sferi individualnog? Ako gestovi pripadaju čovečanstvu, da li to znači da je individualno telo samo „domaćin“, medijum, nosilac gesta? Da li je čovek prinuđen da bira iz određenog i konačnog broja gestova čovečanstva? Ili je, pak, sasvim obratno? Na svetu postoji beskonačno mnogo gestova, ali čovek odabira da koristi samo one gestove koji su društveno prihvatljivi.

Ako čovek koristi uniformne gestove, to radi jer kao nagradu dobija uključivanje u cirkulisanje ljudskih tela, no da li za kaznu, gubi samog sebe? I konačno, da li gestovi mogu da izumiru? Da li izumrli gestovi mogu ponovo da se vrate? Ili, pak, telo može da proizvodi svoje gestove? Studija koja sledi pokušaće da odgovori na dve grupe pitanja. Ontološka pitanja glase: Da li gest postoji nezavisno od tela? A ako gest postoji nezavisno od tela, ili čak i pre tela, tada, odakle dolazi gest? Kakav je ontološki status gesta? Da li je ljudsko telo samo proteza za gest? Da li je gest više primordijalan nego telo? Da li su gestovi arhetipovi koji samo koriste tela da bi se izrazili, da bi međusobno komunicirali? 

Epistemološka pitanja glase: Kakva je epistomološka vrednost gestova? Da li se gestovi prave samo zbog potrebe komunikacije, samo zbog raspodele znanja i osećanja? Ako je to tako, da li je u prošlosti postojalo beskonačno mnogo gestova koji su potom iščezli jer ih tela nisu koristila? Da li iščezli gestovi mogu ponovo da se pronađu, čak i ponovo rode? I konačno, koliko gestovi imaju potrebitost za telima da bi ona mogla komunicirati?

Tekst koji sledi pokušaće da odgovori na ova pitanja preko analize gestova kod serije autora, od Montenja (16. vek), Lesinga (17. vek), preko Kjerkegora, Tureta i Frojda (19. vek), pa sve do Kafke, Kundere i Agambena (20. vek).

Gest koji poništava telo 
(Kafka, 20. vek: Umetnik u gladovanju)

Čovek u ekstazi, ali i čovek koji se davi u vodi – oboje dižu ruke

Ovako piše Franc Kafka, autor čiji je opus književni eksperiment oko pitanja da li gest može da postane događaj. Kafka je zabeležio da se isti dramatični gest (dizanje ruku u vis) koristi za dve sasvim suprotne situacije, jednom da označi vrhunsku ekstazu, a drugi put da označi očajan poziv za pomoć. Zbog čega ljudsko telo raspolaže sa malim registrom telesnih signalizacija? Da li bi stvaranje novih gestova pomoglo čoveku da bolje komunicira sa kompleksnim duševnim stanjima? Maks Brod, najbolji Kafkin prijatelj, ostavio je svedočenje da je za Kafku sve bilo gest: „Ono što je Kafka najmanje posmatrao beše gestuis. Svaki gest je događaj – moglo bi da se kaže i drama – sam za sebe... (G)est je centar događaja.


[ВИДЕО] ТВ Телма. Шарена револуција, Груевски како Колишевски. 18 Април 2016

[ВИДЕО] ТВ Телма, Топ тема со Александар Чомовски, 18 april 2016 Шарена Револуција. Груевски како Колишевски со проф. д-р Бранимир Јовановиќ, проф. д-р Јетон Шасивари и проф. д-р Јасна Котеска

[VIDEO] TV Telma, TV host Aleksandar Comovski on the so-called Colorful Revolution in the Republic of Macedonia, Gruevski like Kolishevski? April 18 2016. Talk with Professors Branimir Jovanovic, Jeton Shasivari and Jasna Koteska.


The Ideology of Consumerism in Kierkegaard's Repetition (Ljubljana, 2015) - in English

Author. Jasna Koteska, "The Ideology of Consumerism in Kierkegaard's Repetition" 

Book. Soren Kierkegaard, International Workshop and Conference: How to Avoid the Totalitarianism of Consumerism, ed. Dr. Primoz Repar, KUD Apokalipsa and Central European Institute Soren Kierkegaard (CERI-SK), Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2015, 49-87. 

Jasna Koteska
The Ideology of Choice and Consumerism in Kierkegaard’s Repetition

I. Introduction:
Three Impossible Choices

The following article analyzes Kierkegaard’s ideology of choice - a concept central to both the construction of subjectivity and the ideology of consumerism - as presented in Kierkegaard’s book Repetition (1843). Before delving into the analysis of choice in Repetition, we will offer the following two points about Kierkegaard’s general theory of choice.


According to Kierkegaard, humans are torn between two incongruent and often contradictory paradigms: the aesthetical and the ethical one (which are more concretely visible in the two ideological commands: pleasure or duty). The ethical and the aesthetical paradigm cannot always coexist one next to another, both according to the social standards, but also because of the general incongruity of pleasure and duty, two things which contradict each other completely (“If I elect pleasure, I will immediately negate duty, and vice versa”). Not only are the contradictory commands imposed upon people by the ideological demands of the society, but people have to make their choices based on what Kierkegaard called “the leap of faith”, i.e. without a clear knowledge of the consequences of the choices made. Yet, choices are not impossible, and for Kierkegaard, most of what is out there are only some practical decisions about what kind of life one wants to commit oneself to. Although made by the “leap of faith”, people are capable of deciding, capable of making choices, depending on their subjective judgments, and on the circumstances of their lives. A perfect illustration of the problems with the choice, one finds in Kierkegaard’s most famous book Either/Or (1843), which as is well known, investigates the two paradigms from the perspective of marriage (especially in its small novelette The Seducer’s Diary). The book has two perspectives: either talks about life from an aesthetic point of view, and or talks about the life from the ethical point of view. The main argument of the second volume of Either/Or can be summed up to these few lines: A and B know each other, A is an aesthete, he is unhappy, and he is 7 years younger than B. B is married and at first he writes to A to tell him that he considers that marriage possesses an aesthetic value (and pleasure). A is not convinced. B then writes again and this time he includes the ethical dimension (and duty), too. A does not respond again. B finally sends his third letter, in which he retells a narrative told by a priest that humans are always wrong in relation to God, which basically means that the project is finalized with the short religious tractate. A continues to be silent.


On Freud's Screen Memories (December, 2015) in Macedonian

Јасна Котеска, „За екранските сеќавања на Фројд“, Наше писмо, бр. 79-80, год. XXI, Скопје, декември 2015, 14-19.

Јасна Котеска

Предмет на анализа во овој текст е една мала, денес речиси сосема заборавена студија на Фројд, со наслов За екранските сеќавања. Студијата е напишана во 1899, само една година пред почетокот на 20 век и пред Фројдовата капитална книга Толкување на соништата (1900). Таткото на Фројд умира два години порано, а во писмото до Флис Фројд запишува дека открил застрашувачка вистина за семејната динамика, имено:

„Во сите случаи на патологијата, таткото е тој што треба да биде осуден за перверзија “![1]

Ова е најраната Фројдова антиципација на Едиповиот татко, централна тема во неговиот опус. Таткото е во исто време носител на симболниот поредок, и како таков го гарантира функционирањето на поредокот. Но, додека го штити поредокот од вишокот задоволство вграден во него, тој истовремено и ја активира и перверзијата упатена кон поредокот, во она што Лакан подоцна го напиша како père-version (перверзија на таткото - авторитет). Полиморфната перверзија на таткото значи дека авторитетот истовремено е јадро кое ја одржува социјалната хармонија, но и јадро кое го корумпира истиот опстанок што треба да го гарантира. Со овој проблем Фројд ќе се занимава сета своја кариера, а овој текст е посветен на најраната интуиција на Фројд дека Едип е можеби најважното прашање и централната тема на психоанализата.


Pride Week, Silence and Violence (2015) in English

Jasna Koteska "Pride Week, Silence and Violence (LGBTI in Macedonia, 2013 and 2014)", 
Book: Representation of Gender Minority Groups in Media: Serbia, Montenegro and Macedoniaedited by Tatjana Rosic-Ilic, Jasna Koteska and Janko Ljumovic, FMK, Faculty of Media and Communications, Belgrade, 2015, 49-63.

ISBN 978-86-87107-54-0

Pride Week, Silence and Violence
(LGBTI in Macedonia, 2013 and 2014)
Jasna Koteska

Introduction: “Who Did This?”

A well-known anecdote talks about the occasion when a German officer visited Pablo Picasso’s studio in Paris during the Second World War. After seeing Guernica, shocked by the modernist chaos of the painting, the officer asked Picasso: “Did you do this?” Picasso calmly replied: “No, you did this”.[1] If applied to the Macedonian LGBTI context, marked by a sharp distinction between the acute media silence about the LGBTI communities, and the frequent public outbursts of violence against the same communities, to the media question: “Who did this?”, one should reply, like Picasso: “You did this. This is the result of your politics!”

Two features closely related to the Macedonian LGBTI communities in the past two years, consist of two opposites: the huge media silence about the LGBTI communities and their activisms, and the frequent explosions of physical attacks and hooliganism (as the most “vocal” display of one’s opinion). How does this double-helix (“not recognizing them”, yet “recognizing them to its fullest physical presence” even taking an active violent stance against them) function in the Macedonian reality, and what is the role of the Macedonian media in creating this double helix?

The voice serves as the regulator of basic ethical rights. The ultimate image, also a practical demonstration of this fundamental logic, is Edvard Munch’s painting The Scream (1893). It is only when one is deprived of the voice, that one renders the ultimate anxiety. And vice versa, when the voice is vocalized the anxiety is released. But, what happens when individuals and whole communities are deprived of their voices and visibility; when the voicing of one’s rights is silenced, and the ethical stance is no longer guaranteed by the public and by the media? The logical answer is that the ethical stance gets sort of “kidnapped” by groups which claim a higher “understanding” of the ethics, and of who are “us” as opposed to “them”: the religious right groups, the sport fans, the traditional family leagues, etc. This is than the case when the silence (rejecting the voice) forms a circular movement towards its radical negation: vehement, loud violence.


O unheimlich efektu zajednice (2015) in Serbian/Croatian

Koteska Jasna, "O unheilmich efektu zajednice (Dramatika Žanine Mirčevske)", 

Žene, drame i izvedba: Izmedju post-socijalizma i post-feminizma), uredila Lada Čale-Feldman, Edicija: Teorija savremene umetnosti, Orion, Beograd, 2015, 167-191.


Jasna Koteska

Tekst koji slijedi odnosi se na analizu dramskih tekstova Dies Irae (1990) i Esperanza (1996) najpoznatije makedonske dramatičarke Žanine Mirčevske (rođene 1967). Međutim, prije analitičke razrade samih drama, tekst će skicirati povijest makedonske ženske dramati ke, nastojeći pritom odrediti koliko dramski opus Mirčevske upravo njoj uisti nu pripada, a koliko oponira makedonskoj dramskoj tradiciji; istovremeno, tekst će uznastojati oko određivanja važnosti koju je imala i ima autorska pojava Mirčevske od osamdesetih godina do danas.

Makedonska ženska drama u XIX i XX stoljeću


Prvo žensko ime koje se spominje u makedonskoj dramskoj povijesti je ime glumice Marije Pop Georgieve Černodrinske, supruge dramskog pisca i redatelja Vojdana Černodrinskog (1875 - 1951). Njezina djelatnost „u sjeni“ sastojala se od asisti ranja prilikom formiranja prvih makedonskih kazališnih družina Briga i utjeha/Скрб и утеха (utemeljena 1901) I Središnji makedonski teatar/Столичен македонски театар (ime kasnije kazališne trupe). S ovim je putujućim kazalištem Černodrinski uprizorio svoju dramu Makedonska krvava svadba (napisanu 1900), koja je doživjela ogroman uspjeh kod publike. Osim u Makedoniji, Vojdan i Marija Černodrinski popularizirali su makedonsku dramu na Balkanu, nastupajući na scenama u Bugarskoj, Srbiji i Grčkoj. Osim što znamo da je osobno igrala u dramama, danas malo znamo o konkretnoj ulozi Marije Černodrinske u makedonskoj dramaturgiji na kraju XIX stoljeća. Možemo pretpostaviti da je Černodrinska pomagala u organiziranju kazališne trupe, asistirala pri postavljanju drama na scenu, ali ne znamo je li sudjelovala u radu na dramskim tekstovima.

Prije Černodrinskog, makedonska kazališna tradicija vezuje se uz ime Jordana Hadži Konstantinova Džinota, koji je u drugoj polovini XIX stoljeća u školama u Makedoniji organizirao dramske predstave, ali do danas nema konkretnih podataka o tome jesu li u njima sudjelovale i žene i koja je bila njihova unkcija. S druge pak strane, znamo kako je Džinot u svoju dramaturgiju unio dosta makedonske folklorne tradicije, u kojoj su vjekovima postojale različite folklorne dramske forme u kojima su sudjelovale žene: koledarska, vasiličarska, dodolska, džamalarska itd, ali konkretna uloga žena u ovim folklornim djelima nedostatno je proučavana iz rodne perspektive.


Trauma Afore and Now: From Charcot to Hollywood (2015) - in Macedonian

Јасна Котеска, „Траумата некогаш и денес: Од Шарко до Холивуд“, во Спектар, меѓународно списание за литературна наука, уредник Наташа Аврамовска, Институт за македонска литература, Скопје, 2015. бр. 65, год. XXXIII, 149-167.

Jasna Koteska: Trauma Afore and Now: From Charcot to Hollywood (2015), Spectar, International Journal for Literary Science, ed. Natasha Avramovska, Institute for Macedonian Literature, Skopje, No. 65, XXIII, 149-167.

Јасна Котеска

1. Траумата и брзината

„Ултимативниот автомобил ќе се движи толку брзо,
дури и кога мирува, што ќе биде невидлив.“

Ј. Г. Балард

Во Граѓанинот Кејн (1941) на Орсон Велс клучниот двигател на филмското дејство е една навидум безначајна ситница од детството на главниот лик, немилосрдниот тајкун Кејн - неговата детска санка за снег Роузбад. Малото превозно средство во филмот станува синоним за трката на Кејн по моќ и пари. Кодното име „роузбад“ кај Велс ги отвори клучните теми на траумата: детството, спомените, идентитетот и  брзината.
Брзината за која зборуваме не е само метафора. Раѓањето на модерниот концепт на траумата е директно врзан за подемот на железничкиот сообраќај. Половина век по првите железници во Франција и Британија, клиниките се полнат како со жртви на фактичките судири на возовите, така и со една нова категорија пациенти кои страдаат од траумата на возењето. Нечовечката брзина ги збунува перцепциите, патувањата стануваат низи од регистрирани, но недоживеани моменти. Акцелерација предизвикува искривување на времето; просторот се стеснува до временски секвенци, па сетилата иако се’ уште може да ги регистрираат настаните, умот веќе не може нив да ги процесира. Брзината предизвикува раздвојување на искуството: патникот ги гледа бзрите промени во пејсажот низ прозорецот, но ги запаметува само како искривена слика, блиска до анормалниот израз, што докторите подоцна ќе го наречат: нервна болест. На крајот на 19 век железниците масовно ги отфрлале барањата за оштета, но поплаките станале толку чести, што невролозите морале да воведат нова дијагноза: железнички ’рбет, со која ги воделе болните кои иако немаат анатомски повреди, сепак страдаат од траума предизвикана од брзината. Прашањето гласело: но, како човек може да страда од болка што нема видлива рана? Ова прашањето довело до раздор и на редовната средба на „Виенскиот кралски лекарски сојуз“ во 1886 година, на која една група невролози инсистирале дека болката е предизвикана од фактичка повреда што не се гледа, додека другата група сметала дека пациентот навистина не доживеал физички удар, туку раздвојување на искуството во извесен тип на несвесна траума. На втората група доктори припаѓа таткото на модерната неврологија, Жан-Мартен Шарко, најпознатиот лекар од пред-Фројдовската ера. Иако зборот траума бил во употреба уште од Антиката, зборот се однесувал на физичкиот удар, физичката траума. Шарко за првпат регистрирал дека постои болест без телесни повреди, но со телесни симптоми: парализи на екстремитетите, хистерично слепило, тикови, неспособност да се зборува итн.